Israel and the arab world : eight wars, and few peace agreements

Israƫl et le monde arabe : huit guerres, et de rares accords de paix

The history of Israel was marked by turbulent relationships and eight wars official with its arab neighbors. The historic agreement announced Thursday with the united arab Emirates is only the third of its kind, after the peace with Egypt and then with Jordan.

Creation of Israel and wars

On may 14, 1948, three years after the end of the Second world War and the extermination of six million Jews by the nazis, David Ben-Gurion proclaims the State of Israel on part of Palestine.

The next day, the arab armies (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq) to go to war against the new State, which won an overwhelming victory in 1949. More than 760,000 Palestinians are pushed to the exodus or driven from their homes.

On October 29, 1956, three months after the nationalization of the Suez canal by Egypt, Israel launched its armored and aviation to attack the Sinai and reached the Suez canal. Under pressure from the UN, the United States and the USSR, Israel withdraws.

On June 5, 1967, Israel triggers a war in the so-called “Six-days” against Egypt, Syria and Jordan, seizing East Jerusalem, the west bank, the Gaza strip, the plateau of the syrian Golan and egyptian Sinai.

On 6 October 1973, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in the Sinai and on the Golan heights. After serious setbacks, the israeli army takes over at the cost of severe losses.

1979, peace with Egypt

In November 1977, egyptian president Anwar Anwar al-Sadat was the first arab head of State to visit Israel since its foundation.

This historic journey opened the way for the Camp David accords in September 1978, which lead to the 26 march 1979 to the signature, under the aegis of the United States, the peace treaty israeli-egyptian, the first ever concluded between Israel and its neighbors.

Invasion of Lebanon

On 6 June 1982, israeli troops invaded Lebanon and laid siege to Beirut. The Organization for the liberation of Palestine (PLO) of Yasser Arafat must leave the country. The israeli troops occupied the South until 2000.

After the abduction of israeli soldiers by the movement Hezbollah in 2006, Israel launches an offensive devastating in Lebanon.

Peace with Jordan

On 26 October 1994, the prime ministers of israel Yitzhak Rabin and jordanian Abdel Salam Majali sign a treaty of peace, turning the page of a 46-year state of war.

The treaty, signed in the presence of us president Bill Clinton, guarantees of Israel’s security on its border, the longest and lays the groundwork for economic cooperation. It also recognizes the “historic role” of Jordan in the management of muslim holy places in Jerusalem.

Intifadas and the Oslo accords

In December 1987, Palestinians in the west bank and in Gaza triggered by the ” war of stones “, the first Intifada against the israeli occupation.

On September 13, 1993, after six months of secret negotiations in Oslo, Israel and the PLO signed the Washington accords on palestinian self-rule, sealed by a historic handshake between Yasser Arafat and prime minister Yitzhak Rabin.

Yasser Arafat returned to the occupied territories and establish the palestinian Authority.

In November 1995, Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by an extremist jew opposed to the peace process.

After the failure of israeli-palestinian negotiations at Camp David and the visit controversial in September 2000 Ariel Sharon, then leader of the opposition from the right, on the esplanade of the Mosques in Jerusalem, the second Intifada is triggered.

The israeli army reoccupies the main cities of the west bank, and launched in march 2002, the largest offensive on the territory since 1967.

In September 2005, Israel withdrew unilaterally from the Gaza strip, which it imposed a blockade following the takeover of the enclave by the islamist Hamas movement in 2007. In July 2014, Israel launched operation “Edge protector” against the Gaza strip.

Plan of Trump

On 6 December 2017, the us president, Donald Trump recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, sparking the anger of the Palestinians and the disapproval of the international community. May 14, 2018, the United States transferred to Jerusalem with their embassy.

In march 2019, the u.s. president signs the decree recognizing the sovereignty of Israel on the Golan heights.

On January 28, 2020, it unveiled a controversial plan including the annexation by Israel of parts of the occupied west bank. The arab countries warned that annexation would provoke a ” major conflict “.

On 13 August, Donald Trump announces the signing of a “historic peace agreement” between Israel and the united arab Emirates, under which the jewish State agrees to put an end to the continued annexation of palestinian territory.

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