The study on the basis of deep analysis, we used over 600 entries about the cultures of the 60 societies around the world — this work was the largest sample in this area.
All the wars and conflicts that have plagued human civilization for centuries, can cause some people to think that blame — the constant clash of irreconcilable cultures. But a new study is able to challenge this thesis. Employees of the University of Oxford in his new work found a surprising and hopeful evidence to the contrary: all cultures are in fact bound by common moral code of seven different common rules and patterns of behaviour.
Referring to the database on intercultural variations, called “the Files of the human relations” (Human Relations Area Files, HRAF, organized by Yale University), a team of researchers under the leadership of Oliver Scott Curry has been studying the development of morality in human cultures. To do this, they have scanned the evidence of the seven discrete moral behaviours to more than 600 thousand words of the ethnographic reports. These joint actions and rules — offer a universal moral code — are the following items: help the family, help her community, reciprocity, courage, obedience to superiors (respect), the division of disputed resources (justice) and respect for previous ownership (right of ownership).
In the course of work, scientists have discovered that these seven rules are equally recognized in different cultures is investigated and has never been perceived as morally bad. In addition, many of these types of behaviour were observed in most cultures and with the same frequency in different regions.
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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth among all the planets of the Solar system in size.
Age – 4.54 billion years
Average radius – 6 378,2 km
The average circumference – 030,2 40 km
Area – 072 510 million km2 (of 29.1 percent and 70.9% water)
The number of the continents – 6: Eurasia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica
The number of oceans – 4: Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic
Population – 7.3 billion people (50.4% of men and 49.6% women)
The most densely populated States: Monaco (18 678 people/km2), Singapore (7607/km2) and the Vatican (1914/km2)
Number of countries: a total of 252 independent 195
The number of languages in the world – about 6,000
The number of official languages – 95; the most common are English (56 countries), French (29 countries) and Arabic (24 countries)
The number of nationalities – about 2 000
Climatic zones: Equatorial, tropical, temperate and Arctic (main) + sub-Equatorial, subtropical and subarctic (transitional)
In addition, a universal moral code automatically condemns the opposite models of behavior: neglect of family, a betrayal of the group, lack of cooperation, cowardice, disrespect, injustice and theft.
Of the 962 observations of these principles was discovered only one exception among cookstove society in Micronesia: according to scientists, in this society, openly stealing from others is not condemned, since this behavior demonstrates the dominance of man and suggests that he was not afraid of the aggression and power of the other. However, the researchers note that this feature can be interpreted as a special form of courage.
Not every society is equally evaluates or determines the priorities of these social norms, but the fact that they undoubtedly considered a positive and respected in so many societies, is of great importance to support the concept of moral universalism in contrast to moral relativism.
As reported by “Around the world. Ukraine”, the natives of the Caribbean Islands were not cannibals