The astronauts-Gemini: summarize the results of the experiment NASA
Science is not yet able to withstand the impact of space on the human body.
12 APR 2019 19:29
For the successful conquest of outer space should solve a lot of problems, not only technological, but also related to the health of astronauts. The study of the processes of man in space, is a long time, and the most important participants are identical twins mark and Scott Kelly. Born in 1964, the brothers 32 years of age was selected in the team of astronauts and underwent the same training. During his career, mark made four flights, having the space for a total of 54 days 1 hour 2 minutes. And Scott in 2015-2016 conducted on Board the ISS for a year.
At this time mark remained on the Ground, and after the return of brother scientists immediately noticed some differences in their organisms. After a detailed study and found changes in gene activity. Now to General conclusions, and they leave a lot of questions.
The study authors note that during long space missions, the body is going through a lot of negative changes, but most of them eventually return to normal. This is vividly illustrated by the condition of the telomeres – the end parts of chromosomes which shorten with age, but the rate changes each person depends on the impact of environment, stress levels and other factors. During a long flight at Scott’s telomeres began to lengthen in space, so he started to “look younger”. It may be associated with reduced food intake and increased physical activity level on Board the ISS, but the hypothesis is not proven. And then when the astronaut returned to Earth, telomeres again began to decline.
The adaptation to the microgravity environment resulted in the change of gene expression level: the degree of their expression changed genes for the immune system, DNA repair and bone growth. But there is nothing unusual here: the body responds to any stressful conditions; in particular, climbers and divers recorded similar results.
Analysis of cognitive abilities gives disappointing results: intellectual activity, spatial orientation, emotion recognition, and other abilities Scott has survived, but during the first six months on the Ground the reaction rate was slow. These changes have been associated with the effects of Earth’s gravity, the astronaut has the habit, as well as the level of stress due to the tight schedule.
Body weight Scott in space has decreased by 7%, but this may be due less calories than on Land, food increased the amount of physical activity. Changed the composition of the intestinal flora of an astronaut, but it is most likely due to differences in products. These data will help adjust the diet for working in space people.
In addition, Scott has noted the blurred vision is likely due to the unusual distribution of body fluids in weightlessness, the blood literally “rush” to the head. These and other results large-scale study, not even answering all the questions, will allow you to tailor the training program for the astronauts.
Find out how the body has changed Japanese in space.